Stress: Its Link to Disease

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By: Robert Melick

Stress, Relaxation, Relax, Voltage

Merriam Webster defines stress as “a state of mental tension or worry caused by problems in your life, work, etc.” They also define it as “something that causes strong feeling of worry or anxiety.” Stress is something that is difficult to measure in scientific studies. You cannot simply look at someone and judge the amount of stress they have based on their lifestyle; perceived stress is what counts. Two people may have identical amounts of stress, but one may cope with it much better than the other.

It has long been proposed in the psychological community that stress can cause or make disease worse. People claimed it caused ulcers and depression. Few scientific studies examined this issue. Stress becomes a major problem when it is chronic stress, stress that someone feels a majority of the time because of a job, family problems, taking care of someone sick, or various other issues. This chronic stress is believed to cause permanent problems in physiological, behavioral and emotional responses that negatively influence susceptibility and progression of disease (1).

The Effect of Stress on the Body

One of the major problems with stress is that it releases a nasty steroid hormone called cortisol. Cortisol is believed to influence a variety of physiological processes in the body including: metabolism of fats, protein and carbohydrates, increase blood sugar and suppresses the immune system (Wikipedia). Also released are chemicals called catecholamines, which include adrenaline (1).

Catecholamines (like adrenaline) prepare the body for something called the “fight or flight reflex,” an evolutionary adaptation that kicks in when you are in danger- it causes an increase in adrenaline which in turn increase the heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels (Wikipedia). One can easily see how having an increased heart rate, blood pressure and blood glucose levels all of the time will harm the body long term.

This reaction benefited our ancestors when they were faced with some immediate danger like a hungry lion, but when this state is constantly activated it can interfere with control of other physiological systems making someone more at risk for psychiatric and physical disorders (1).

Scientific Studies Showing Stress Increases Disease Risk

Psychological stress has been shown to increase disease risk, especially heart disease (1). As stress negatively influences anti inflammatory and immune processes, it can potentially influence depression, certain cancers, and autoimmune, infectious and coronary artery disease (1). About 20-25% of people who go through major stressful events develop depression (1). Laboratory experiments in humans have showed that stress can aid in the development of pathogenic processes like heart ischemia (define) and activate inflammatory mechanisms (1).

One analysis showed a 50% increase in cardiovascular disease risk associated with high amounts of stress at work, inadequate compensation and organizational injustice (1). The progression from HIV to aids in individuals also appears to be heavily influenced by stress (1). Among men with HIV, the risk of advancing to AIDS was increased by 50% for each additional moderately severe event (1). The evidence linking stress to cancer has been mixed (1). This may be because many studies lump all cancer types together, although they each have distinct causes and progressions (1).

Studies have shown a link between posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic stress exposures to conditions like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, and chronic fatigue syndrome (2). Stress has been shown to aggravate auto immune disorders, especially rheumatoid arthritis, with stress management showing some symptom relief (2).

Science has proven what many have thought for so long- stress kills. People must take steps to keep their daily stress to a minimum. If you hate your job try to find a new one. We nearly spend more time at work than we do at home, so you have to enjoy your job. From personal experience I would recommend meditation. We live at such a fast pace in this society, it helps to sit down and meditate for at least 10 minutes a day. Or you can try yoga if meditation is not your thing.

Sources:

1. Cohen, S., D. Janicki-Deverts, and G. E. Miller. “Psychological Stress and Disease.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association298.14 (2007): 1685-687. Web
2. Stojanovich, Ljudmila, and Dragomir Marisavljevich. “Stress as a Trigger of Autoimmune Disease.” Autoimmunity Reviews 7.3 (2008): 209-13. Web.
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catecholamine

7 thoughts on “ Stress: Its Link to Disease

  1. Lucia Henkle

    Knowing more in detail about stress makes you want to re-analyze what things you can change in your life to live in a minimized stress mode.

    What other methods are good for stress? Meditation is hard for me, as I have a tough time focusing for a long period of time. When I try to meditate, I always think of many things (one thing or another). How do I keep my mind blank (main purpose)?

    Reply
    1. RobertRobert Post author

      I agree it would be a good idea to look at your life and see what things cause you stress and then figure out if there are any ways to reduce it . Exercising can be good for stress. A good diet and ample sleep will surely help. Try to set aside time for yourself each day just to relax.

      Meditation is not easy. In the beginning it may be a good idea to write down all the thoughts that keep popping up. There is probably a reason you keep thinking certain things, maybe they are active in your subconscious. If they keep popping up during meditation just tell yourself you already wrote them down and will go back to them after you are done meditating. Having music on can keep your mind focused on something else besides the recurring thoughts. I would start meditating listening to music and once you get better you can focus on your breathing.

      Reply
  2. Rita Henkle

    EL ESTRES COMO DICES LIBERA LA HORMONA CORTISOL Y POR ESO ES CAUSA DE LA DIABETES. LEYENDO TUS NOTAS SE DA CUENTA UNO DE TANTAS COSAS QUE IGNORAMOS Y EL ESTRES ES CAUSA DE MUCHAS ENFERMEDADES QUE UNO PUEDE EVITAR TRATANDO DE RELAJARSE.

    Reply
    1. RobertRobert Post author

      Si. Cortisol es uno causa de la diabetes. Estoy feliz tu estas leyendo mis notas. No debemos ignorar los estres porque los estres puede afectar muchaaas cosas en nuestros cuelpas ademas las diabetes

      Reply
  3. Julio E. Henkle

    Stress appears constantly in our modern way of life. It is there when we have a fixed time and date to finish a job or a project, when there is not enough money to pay your bills, when you suffer the passing of a loved person, when you are stucked in the traffic rush. The difference is in how you cope with it.
    It is very helpful to have a positive attitude towards life. To focus in finding a solution rather than keep revolving around the problem. To eat a balanced diet, sleep well and exercise your body and mind. To relax, take a break, meditate and then go on.

    Reply
    1. RobertRobert Post author

      Exactly. That is why it is hard to measure stress objectively as everyone reacts to stress differently. Some people let stress get them overwhelmed while others with more stress keep a positive attitude and although it seems like they should be stressed out they are not. I also believe positive things happen to positive people and perseverance really pays off.

      Reply
  4. murielle tassy

    I agree . I suffer from PTSD and former addiction to self harm and smoking for 15 years in the past. Yoga and meditation; after therapy years ago, helped controlled my stress level. As a yoga instructor myself, I personally seen when once taught a class relating to PTSD and mental health with former clients a feeling of nirvana after a session. Thank you for sharing!

    Reply

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